Philip Robson Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids 2001
Summary- Cannabis and some cannabinoids are effective antiemetics and
analgesics and reduce intraocular pressure. There is evidence of symptom relief and
improved well-being in selected neurological conditions, AIDS and certain cancers.
Cannabinoids may reduce anxiety and improve sleep. Anticonvulsant activity
requires clarification. Other properties identified by basic research await evaluation.
Standard treatments for many relevant disorders are unsatisfactory. Cannabis is safe
in overdose but often produces unwanted effects, typically sedation, intoxication,
clumsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, lowered blood pressure or increased heart rate.
The discovery of specific receptors and natural ligands may lead to drug
developments. Research is needed to optimise dose and route of administration,
quantify therapeutic and adverse effects, and examine interactions.
Their conclusion (House of Lords, 1998) published in November 1998, was that,
although cannabis should remain a controlled drug, the law should be changed to
allow doctors to prescribe “an appropriate preparation of cannabis if they saw fit””
and search for a way to avoid criminalising those who seek only to assuage their own
suffering”. The government rejected this recommendation on the day of publication.
· Mike Barnes ReportCannabis: The Evidence for Medical Use 2016
A comprehensive review of the literature about cannabis for therapeutic purposes.
· The Wooton Report 1969
· Cannabinoids: A new hope for breast cancer therapy?
This review summarizes our current knowledge on the antitumor potential of
cannabinoids in breast cancer, which suggests that cannabinoid-based medicines
may be useful for the treatment of most breast tumor subtypes.
· Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review
Mental health conditions are prominent among the reasons for medical cannabis use.
Cannabis has potential for the treatment of PTSD and substance use disorders.
Cannabis use may influence cognitive assessment, particularly with regard to
Cannabis use does not appear to increase risk of harm to self or others.
More research is needed to characterize the mental health impact of medical
· Cannabinoids remove plaque-forming Alzheimer's proteins from brain cells
Scientists have found preliminary evidence that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other
compounds found in marijuana can promote the cellular removal of amyloid beta, a toxic
protein associated with Alzheimer's disease.
"Although other studies have offered evidence that cannabinoids might be
neuroprotective against the symptoms of Alzheimer's, we believe our study is the first to
demonstrate that cannabinoids affect both inflammation and amyloid beta accumulation
in nerve cells," says Salk Professor David Schubert, the senior author of the paper.
· Harvard: Marijuana Doesn’t Cause Schizophrenia
The researchers concluded that the results of the current study, “both when analyzed
using morbid risk and family frequency calculations, suggest that having an
increased familial risk for schizophrenia is the underlying basis for schizophrenia in
these samples - not the cannabis use.
“While cannabis may have an effect on the age of onset of schizophrenia it is unlikely
to be the cause of illness,” said the researchers, who were led by Ashley C. Proal
from Harvard Medical School.
· Clearing the smoke: What do we know about adolescent cannabis use and
What can be said is that the extreme opinions on this subject are not rooted in
science. There is little evidence that, at a population level, cannabis use during
adolescence is a primary contributing factor in the development of psychiatric illness.
In fact, it has even been suggested that at a societal level, the prevention of 3000-
4000 adolescents from consuming cannabis may prevent only 1 case of psychosis
from emerging. At the same time, however, there is evidence that in high-risk
populations, cannabis can be highly adverse, so arguments claiming that cannabis is
innocuous are equally flawed… once a diagnosis of schizophrenia is present,
cannabis use is clearly adverse”.
· Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia (Review)
· Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency: can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of
cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, ibs, and other conditions?
· What is the lethal dose of marijuana? (cannabis)
In summary, enormous doses of Delta 9 THC, All THC and concentrated marihuana
extract ingested by mouth were unable to produce death or organ pathology in large
mammals but did produce fatalities in smaller rodents due to profound central
nervous system depression.
The non-fatal consumption of 3000 mg/kg A THC by the dog and monkey would be
comparable to a 154-pound human eating approximately 46 pounds (21 kilograms) of
1%-marihuana or 10 pounds of 5% hashish at one time. In addition, 92 mg/kg THC
intravenously produced no fatalities in monkeys. These doses would be comparable
to a 154-pound human smoking at one time almost three pounds (1.28 kg) of 1%-
marihuana or 250,000 times the usual smoked dose and over a million times the
minimal effective dose assuming 50% destruction of the THC by smoking.
Thus, evidence from animal studies and human case reports appears to indicate that
the ratio of lethal dose to effective dose is quite large. This ratio is much more
favorable than that of many other common psychoactive agents including alcohol and
barbiturates (Phillips et al. 1971, Brill et al. 1970).